Finally, deficiencies that are found to exist are addressed with methods of repair and remediation that have been determined to be effective. The type and the scope of the necessary retrofit work has now been determined and the house is modified to produce a SAFE HOUSE.
Next, information from the pre-engineered data base is selected if it is available, If no current data is available, an existing model will be altered or a new model will be developed and exposed to dynamic motions that are similar to an earthquake using a computer. Findings of inadequacy signals the need for further retrofitting. The database is appropriately updated with any new infomation
First, is the data collection phase. A mathematical model of the structure will be developed using available site information and compared to the data base for a possible set of matching structural characteristics. The goal is to develop a data base of similar houses that have been evaluated and found to be, or not be, in need of additional retrofitting.
STEP TWO -
STEP THREE -
ASSESSMENT OF RISK
It has been estimated by a reputable corporation, that specializes in the assessments of risk that a repeat of the 1868 Hayward Fault earthquake would result in $165 billion in losses in housing related structures alone.
Risk Management Solutions, Newark, CA
THE DEFICIENCIES ARE REAL
A leading member of the Structural Engineers Association of California, and a lead author of the codes and standards used to evaluate and rehabilitate older structures, has estimated that more than 80% of the buildings we live and work in are unable to meet the current seismic safety standards in the areas in which they exist. He expects that 50 percent will likely be safe, 40 percent will need significant repair before they can be reoccupied and 10% are susceptible to complete collapse.
Chris Poland, SE, San Francisco, CA
FEMA Publication 366 provides lists of Estimated Annualized Earthquake losses for the United States. Some examples; in 2005 dollars Los Angeles alone is estimated to have average annual losses of $1.3 billion and San Francisco is estmated at $781 million.
Federal Emergency Management Administration
STEP ONE -
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Trace - Time History
The threat of a major earthquake and the inadequacy of most of the buildings in which we live, to stand up to such an earthquake, are facts. Earthquakes can cause damage resulting in casualties and significant losses in the number of available habitable dwellings. The EQSafeHouse Project strives primarily to improve occupant safety for our homes and, secondarily, to insure safe re-occupation of the home and the chance to "Shelter in Place" after a major earthquake.. Our goal is to reduce damage by adapting technology currently used in critical-structure design for bridges, offshore platforms, high rise buildings, and nuclear power plants to our housing stock. This approach involves three steps: structural modeling, dynamic analysis, and seismic retrofitting.